3.2 Fight the Intruders

Diagnostics The first step in a correct diagnosis obviously, is reading the “body -and mind- signs”, and sometimes these are conclusive enough to take proper action. A lot of symptoms, however, can be quite generic, wherein a test can shine a light in the darkness.   For diagnosing several angles are available: tracing the pathogen directly,

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3.1 Limiting Infection Risks

Controlling Transmission Once a case of infectious disease has been established, it becomes important to contain the spread of the disease. If a patient can transmit the disease directly to other humans, f.i. by air, individual quarantine is the way to go. In such case, persons that are in direct contact with the patient should

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2.3 Immunity In All Our Body Parts

We have two immunity systems in place: humoral and cellular, giving us a wide range of protection. Humoral Humoral immunity occurs in the cell-free fluids, surrounding our cells (also called serum or humor), after f.i. a virus has entered the body (and not a cell).  B- and T-lymphocytes are the most important body cells in

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2.2 Our Adaptive Immune System

The 3rd line of defense is our adaptive immune system. This system recognizes its own body cells by the specific markers the body cells carry, leaving them at peace. An ‘alien’ invading cell or protein, however, invokes cellular and chemical responses, which eventually may be remembered by the system, invoking a much quicker response on

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1.3 Parasites

Parasites basically feed on the host’s nutrition, for multiplication within the host and eventually, transmission to another host. Parasites of medical significance are divided into two main categories that include single-celled parasites (protozoa) and multicellular metazoan (helminths and arthropods). PROTOZOA Based on their mobility structures, we recognize Mastigophora (flagella), Sporozoa (non-mobile), Sarcodina (amoeboid), and Ciliophora

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1.2 Bacteria

BACTERIOLOGY Where viruses don’t have cell structures at all, bacteria do have a cell membrane and DNA material, but they don’t have an enveloped nucleus, nor membrane-bound cell organelles. Their DNA is often seen in a circular structure, and ribosomes are unbounded and present in the cytoplasm. Bacteria either feed on organic carbon (heterotrophic) or

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1.1 Viruses

VIROLOGY Taxonomists identify three domains for all living organisms: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Viruses form a sort of fourth domain, as they don’t fit the full definition of “life.” Viruses are “just” particles of genetic material packed in proteins. They don’t have a cell structure with enzymes for cell growth and multiplication, but in their multiplication

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