Bonus lesson: Course background material, glossary and links.

Great that you have mastered this course. Our experts added some bonus material, if you are interested to deepen your knowledge further.
Read on and visit the links below to find out more about Genomics in modern-day healthcare.

Bonus material:

List of the 20 most common amino acids.

Glossary:

Key terms help you in understanding clinical encounters and are provided for reference in a glossary that covers the specific vocabulary relevant to the clinical linkage.
Below are the key terms from this clinical linkage, listed alphabetically.
A complete glossary of all terms can be found under the ‘references’ heading on the home page.

Adenine (A) A nucleotide, one of four basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.
CytoplasmAll of the material in a cell, excluding the nucleus, mostly water and salt.
Cytosine (C) A nucleotide, one of four basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.
DNADeoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. DNA is in each cell in the organism and tells cells what proteins to make. The information is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).
EpigenomeA multitude of chemical compounds that can tell the genome what to do, like turning genes on and off, or controlling the production of proteins.
GeneticsGenetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
GenomeThe genome is the total genetic information of humans.
GenomicsThe study and understanding of the genome.
Guanine (G)A nucleotide, one of four basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Human Genome ProjectAn international research effort to determine the human genome, and to identify all of the genes that it contains.
Introns Intragenic Regions, noncoding sequences in genes, like a spacer.
mRNAMessenger RNA, a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to one of the DNA strands of a gene. It is an RNA version of the gene that leaves the cell nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm where proteins are made.
MutationsMutations play an important role in the development of cancer. They cause a cell to make (or not make) proteins that affect how the cell grows and divides into new cells.
NGS, Next Generation SequencingNext Generation Sequencing (NGS), technology is a massively parallel sequencing technology, with the aid of computer technologies, to identify complex DNA sequences in one laboratory set up, without the need of performing separated steps in the process.
NucleusA highly specialized organelle, it stores the cell’s hereditary material (DNA), and it coordinates the cell’s activities.
ProteinsProteins are large and complex molecules, made up of thousands of smaller units, amino acids. They are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.
RibosomeA cellular particle made of RNA and protein. Ribosomes are macromolecular machines, found within all living cells, that perform biological protein synthesis (mRNA translation).
RNARibonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule, essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids. The nitrogenous bases in RNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U), which replaces thymine (T) in DNA.
Thymine (T)A nucleotide, one of four basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.
TranscriptomeThe total of all of the transcribed RNAs in a cell/organ/organism is the transcriptome. Transcription is the production of RNA from a DNA sequence.
tRNAA transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
Uracil (U)Uracil (U), one of the four nitrogenous bases in RNA, next to A, G and C. Uracil replaces thymine in DNA.

Links to sources of video’s and images:

  • 1.2. Image of location of DNA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
  • 2.0 Pencil sketch of DNA double helix: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pencil_sketch_of_the_DNA_double_helix_by_Francis_Crick_Wellcome_L0051225.jpg
  • 2.1 Image of DNA, genes, and proteins: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/
  • 2.1 Video of From DNA to mRNA to tRNA to amino acid: moomoomath and science
  • 2.2 Image of the genetic code: https://biologywarakwarak.wordpress.com/2012/01/15/the-3-magical-rules-to-determine-the-amino-acid-chain-from-a-dna-piece-without-error/
  • 3.0 Image of faulty genes: https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2016/11/09/faulty-genes-dont-always-lead-disease
  • 3.3 Image of a faulty gene: https://gastriccancer.org/2017/02/10/faulty-dna-error-correction-genes-set-stage-familial-gastric-cancer/
  • 4.1 Video Introducing genomics in healthcare: http://genomicseduction.org.uk
  • 4.2 Graph of The growth of DNA sequencing data: https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002195
  • 4.3 Image of Covid-19 test: https://www.attogene.com/
  • 4.4 Image of Clinical genomic sequencing: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-schematic-of-the-workflow-of-clinical-genomic-sequencing_fig1_309631541
  • Bonus lesson: list of the 20 most common amino acids: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/List-of-the-20-most-common-amino-acids_tbl1_267367581

Thank you once again for joining us. You can continue with course 102 Oncology Genetics on the homepage.

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