Great that you have mastered this course. Our experts added some bonus material, if you are interested to deepen your knowledge further.
Read on and visit the links below to find out more about Genomics Technologies.

Some more testing techniques

Testing techniques not covered in this course, but these are the commonly used or mentioned ones:

Fluorescentie In-Situ Hybridisatie test (FISH):
A molecular genetic technique that uses probes with fluorescent molecules to detect complementary DNA or RNA strands. The absence or presence of these DNA sequences is detected using fluorescence microscopy.

Chromogene In-Situ Hybridisatie test (CISH)
CISH is similar to FISH, but the labeling is done with biotin or digoxigenin, allowing (cheaper) bright-field microscopes to be used for detection.

Nanopore sequencing
A third-generation approach is used in the sequencing of biopolymers- specifically, polynucleotides in the form of DNA or RNA. Using nanopore sequencing, a single molecule of DNA or RNA can be sequenced without the need for PCR amplification or chemical labeling of the sample.

Links to bonus course material

Bonus puzzle

This puzzle is published in the GCHQ Puzzle Book (2016), EAN: 9780718185541

“New directions in genetic research have led to the feasibility of cloning almost any genome. Recreate the sequence of 80 base pairs from which each of these strands of nucleotides have each degraded. You may wish to carefully examine the twelve strands in their present orientations before recreating the sequence (bearing in mind common conventions such as A=1 etc. ).

Reveal the next creature to benefit from the advances of tomorrow, today!”

For your convenience, you may find a representation of the DNA fragments in the next image.

Please be advised there are two layers in this puzzle. Our preferred layer is recreate the 80 base pair sequence!
Good luck finding your own solution. This puzzle nicely shows the complexity of completing the whole genome, and the advantages of using modernday’s computers.


Key terms help you in understanding clinical encounters and are provided for reference in a glossary that covers the specific vocabulary relevant to the clinical linkage.
Below are the key terms from this clinical linkage, listed alphabetically.
A complete glossary of all terms can be found under the ‘references’ heading on the home page.

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